A team at Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne led by Mohammad Nazeeruddin developed a molecularly-engineered, hole-transporting material, called FTD.
FTD is cheaper to make, cheaper to modify, and more efficient than other, more expensive materials. FTD performed at 20.2%.
Perovskite-based solar cells use hole-transporting technology to transport positive charges generated from collecting sun light. Making and purifying these solar cells is very difficult, and thus very expensive. FTD, in contrast, is very easy to both make and purify, and thus an estimated one-fifth of the cost.